What is 3D render or rendering
In this article we will talk in detail about what is rendering or rendering of a three-dimensional scene.
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What is 3D render?
The literal translation from English of the word rendering is visualization or rendering. In our case, we are talking about converting a 3D scene into a static picture, or frame sequencing (frame sequencing, this is a type of saving many consecutive frames when it comes to rendering animation). In programs for creating 3d content (such as 3ds max, cinema4d, sketch up, etc.), rendering of scenes occurs using mathematical miscalculations. Render - resp. this image is obtained using mathematical miscalculations on a PC.
Rendering is one of the main subtopics of 3D computer graphics, and in practice it is always connected with the rest. In the graphics pipeline, this is the last important step, giving the final look to any 3d scene. With the increasing demand for computer graphics since the 1970s, it has become a more distinct subject.
Scope of application
Scene rendering is used in: computer video games, simulations, films, commercials, television special effects and architectural 3D visualization. Each field of activity uses a different balance of functions and calculation methods. Let's consider a couple of examples of the application of rendering in more detail:
In this advertisement, the manufacturer replaced a real pack of chips with a 3d model followed by rendering. This has saved a lot of time in the production of commercials for different markets. A pack of chips for different countries will look different, there is no need to shoot hundreds of takes with different pack options. One clip is enough, and now you can make a pack of whatever you want.
Now on the TV screen you can make everything real and everyone. No need for mock-ups, mannequins, wigs, makeup. 3d model with subsequent rendering saves time and money necessary for the production of special effects.
Render of Viarde studio from Ukraine, made for one of the furniture factories. Manufacturers of furniture, lighting, appliances, etc., no longer have to pay for expensive photo studios in order to best present their products. In a few days and with a much lower cost, 3D visualization studios will do this.
The rendering systems that are used by 3D editors to render visualizations can be built-in to the program or external plug-ins (installed separately). More often, external rendering systems have better visualization quality than built-in ones, because they are developed independently of the 3D editor. The development team only works on improving its product without being distracted by working with a 3D editor. Teams developing external editors have more time and opportunities to make their product the best on the market. But because of this, most often, unlike the built-in render systems, they will have to pay extra.
Inside rendering is a carefully designed program based on a sample mixture of disciplines related to: physics of light, visual perception, mathematics and software development.
In the case of 3D graphics, rendering can be slow, both in pre-rendering mode and in real time rendering.
Pre-rendering is a visualization method that is used in environments where speed does not matter, and image calculations are performed using multi-core CPUs, rather than dedicated graphics equipment. This rendering technique is mainly used in animation and visual effects, where photorealism must be at the highest level.
Real-time rendering: An outstanding rendering technique used in interactive graphics and games where images need to be created at a fast pace. Because user interaction in such environments is high, real-time imaging is required. Dedicated graphics hardware and precompilation of available information increased real-time rendering performance.
Rendering in architectural 3D visualization
Today, the most popular and high-quality systems for architectural 3d visualization are Vray and Corona Renderer. Both systems belong to one developer Chaos Group (Bulgaria).
Vray appeared back in 2000 and has proven itself in many areas of visualization due to its flexibility and a wide range of tools for incorporating various studios into the workflow, be it animation or architectural companies.
The main advantages of V-Ray:
1. Supports network rendering of multiple computers.
2. A very wide range of settings for various tasks associated with three-dimensional graphics.
3. Huge set of materials.
4. Supports a large set of passes for composing pictures or videos.
Corona Renderer is an external, modern, high-performance photo-realistic render available for Autodesk 3ds Max, MAXON Cinema 4D. The development of Corona Renderer began back in 2009 as a solo student project of Ondrej Karlik at the Czech Technical University in Prague. Since then, Corona has evolved into a full-time commercial project after Ondrej founded the company with former computer graphics artist Adam Hotovi and Jaroslav Krzhivanek, associate professor and researcher at Charles University in Prague. In August 2017, the company became part of the Chaos Group, which allowed further expansion and growth. Despite his young age, Corona Renderer has become a very competitive render, capable of creating high-quality results.
The main advantage of Corona Renderer is a very realistic visualization with simple system settings. It is perfect for beginners who have simple tasks.
Render systems like all other programs installed on a computer requires certain resources of your PC to render images. It mainly requires processor power and the amount of RAM. Such render systems are called CPUs. There is also a GPU, this is a render system that calculates images using a video card. For example, Vray has the ability to render both CPU and GPU.
Rendering time depends on some key factors: the complexity of the scene, the number of light sources, the presence of high-poly models, transparent or reflective materials.
Therefore, rendering requires large capacities. A regular office PC is not suitable for this task. If you are going to render, you need special assembly of the computer, so that this process goes quickly. All render systems have different settings, somewhere more somewhere, then less. They can be changed to get the picture faster, but you will have to save on its quality.
The best way to reduce the time of rendering a picture is to use network rendering or a ready-made render farm on the Internet. You can distribute the render between different computers through a local network or the Internet. To do this, all computers involved in the process must have the same rendering program, the same 3D editor and the same plug-ins as the main computer from which the render is launched.
Every day, rendering systems are used more and more in different fields of activity. For films, cartoons, architecture, advertising, industry, automotive and much more. So if you see where, then a static image or animation, it is possible that this is the result of rendering.
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